Human knowledge can be something as simple as knowing a fact. Some people have a lot of respect for others who know lots of facts. Knowing facts, knowing things is an important component of human knowledge.
Facts are often isolated from other knowledge in that they comprise of a memory of a correct answer to a specific question. They are excellent for quizzes and for certain activities where such isolated knowledge is required. Knowledge of isolated things can easily be simulated by computers. Computers simply use lots of data and really good search algorithms to be able to function as competent entities where such knowledge is needed.
It is this expert level of understanding which relies on building new knowledge on top of previous knowledge which is the focus of Knowledge Structure Mapping. The concept of capital city would mean so much more to the expert than someone who simply knows the answer.
When a person performs some perhaps complex task, it would be possible to perform that task by simply knowing what step to do next and nothing else. Yet as soon as a problem arises or something does not match its specification, the person working like this would most likely fail. An expert in the area however, someone who had built up their knowledge by exposure to the knowledge domain over a long period of time would probably take such difficulties in their stride and simply use associated knowledge and experience to overcome the momentary difficulty.
Within this context of human knowledge however, the focus is on understanding and associated or connected knowledge. This means that someone who knows many facts and an expert in for instance geography would both know the answer to the question “What is the capital city of France?”. However, the expert would probably have learned the answer from a study of France which was also part of a study of Europe which was in turn part of a study of human habitation of the planet. The person who just knows the answer might have simply read it from a fact sheet.
Experts can also experiment and discover and innovate within their knowledge domain. Experts need to understand their knowledge.